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Meringues are a common sight in French pastry shops
A crisp surface encases the soft and airy interior of a traditional French meringue.
If you’ve ever visited a bakery in France, then chances are you’ve seen the cloudlike confection known as a cooked meringue. They’re sold in a variety of shapes in sizes depending on their use; some are snacks in and of themselves, while others enhance other dessert dishes.
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In their most basic form, classic French meringues are made by whipping egg whites, sugar, acid, and salt. The French are not the only ones with a meringue recipe, however. Instead of incorporating granulated sugar into their traditional recipe, the Italians create a sugar syrup to whip with the egg whites which allows for a more stable final product.
No matter your preference, the pastry is considered to be a delicacy in France, and even inspires entire shops dedicated to only selling la meringue.
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Trade unionists were joined by members of the "Yellow Vest"movement, which triggered a wave of anti-government protests three years ago, and by workers from sectors hit hard by pandemic restrictions such as culture.
Marchers, most wearing masks in line with coronavirus rules, carried banners reading, "Dividends, not unemployment benefits are the income of lazy people," and, "We want to live, not survive".
The Prefecture de Police, which deployed 5,000 officers in Paris, said it had prevented 'Black Bloc' anarchists from forming a group.
"Loads of money is going to those who have plenty and less for those who have nothing as reflected in the unemployment insurance reform plan that we want scrapped," Philippe Martinez, head of the CGT labour union said.
About 300 rallies were organised in cities including Lyon, Nantes, Lille and Toulouse.
Far-left leader Jean-Luc Melenchon and far-right leader Marine Le Pen, who both plan to challenge President Emmanuel Macron in next year's presidential election, attended May Day events.
"My wish for the working class is that it can be free of the fear of being unemployed," Melenchon told a march in Lille, adding he hoped to return to the northern city as president.
Firefighters carry a police officer away from May Day clashes in Paris. PHOTO: REUTERS
Police officers walk near a fire burning in the street during May Day clashes in Paris. PHOTO: AFP
A demonstrator faces the police during the traditional May Day labour union rally in Paris. PHOTO: REUTERS
Le Pen, who had earlier laid a wreath in Paris at the statue of Joan of Arc, her party's nationalist symbol, warned of "total chaos" if Macron is re-elected.
Macron, the former investment banker who won the presidency in 2017 promising a new way of doing politics, has seen his reform agenda become bogged down in fights with unions, while the pandemic has halted his planned pension system overhaul.
France, which has the world's eighth-highest tally of coronavirus deaths, will start unwinding its third pandemic lockdown restrictions from Monday after a fall in infection rates.
40 Stunning Photos of Paris Through the Years That You've Never Seen Before
Take a step back in time with these vintage Paris photos.
Paris is widely regarded as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Its history dates back to the third century, and in the past century alone, it has been at the forefront of fashion, architecture and infrastructure, revolution, and world wars. Basically, it's a living legend, and these photos of Paris throughout the years show just how special the City of Lights truly is.
Want more? Don't forget to browse our vintage photos of Los Angeles through the years, rare photos of school through the years, and even photos of the 'it' couple the year you were born!
Now a huge visual part of Paris's identity, the unusual tower was built as the main exhibit of the World's Fair in 1889 and meant to commemorate 100 years since the French Revolution.
Built in 1862 under the reign of Napoleon III, the Café de la Paix evolved into an intellectual hot spot for writers, actors, and politicians.
Today rue Descartes houses pubs, caterers, bars, restaurants, and bazaars. That, combined with its "village" appearance, makes it a popular stop for tourists. When Ernest Hemingway first moved to Paris in the 1920s, he rented a space for writing at 39 rue Descartes.
Guignol puppet shows were very popular for children and often drew them in to participate by responding and reacting to questions voiced by the puppets.
The Seine River is inextricably linked to the city's history, economy, aesthetic, and tourism. It winds through some of the most important monuments of Paris, including the Eiffel Tower, the Notre-Dame Cathedral, and the Pont-Neuf, one of the 27 bridges that cross the Seine.
The ornate domed newspaper kiosks are integral to the aesthetic of Parisian streets and are beloved by locals and tourists alike &mdash so much so that when Mayor Anne Hidalgo proposed modernizing 360 of them, about 58,000 Parisians signed a petition against the change.
Charcuterie boards have become a mainstay on modern U.S. restaurant menus, and we have France to thank for that. The word charcuterie is French, after all.
The newest inventions of the sky were revealed at the exhibition hall at Grand Palais. It has become the premier show dedicated to the aviation and space industry.
Paris began constructing its metro system in 1900 in order to accommodate the crowds for the World Fair. Here the Paris metro line 4 (Cite station) was being built.
The First World War mainly took place in France, which all but destroyed the country's economy. Its manpower, infrastructure, and agriculture all suffered and declined.
During the First World War, Japan fought on the side of the French, against Germany, to honor a 1902 alliance with Great Britain.
This cute little food market on Rue Sainte-Opportune was par for the course in 1920s Paris.
Paris is due to host the Olympics in 2024, exactly a century after the last time the Games came to town.
Two young ladies in drop-waist dresses stand next to their vintage automobile, looking like the epitome of the Roaring &rsquo20s in Paris.
The city inaugurated a room in the cellar of Les Halles, the major fresh food market, for the conservation of cheeses.
Hit by the 1929 Depression in the United States, foreign trade declined drastically, creating a global the economic crisis that spread to other countries like France.
The war created a serious gas shortage that prevented Parisians from using cars, buses, or any kind of automobile. And so, the city had to bring back horse-drawn carriages for transportation.
French citizens crowded the Champs Elysees to watch Allied tanks and half tracks pass through the historic monument after Paris was liberated from Nazi occupation on August 25.
Workers parade in front of the headquarters of the central committee of the Communist Party. At the time, the French Communist Party had a quarter of the French population's vote. In 1946, it participated in the Fourth Republic&rsquos first government.
This Tour de France was the first to have a stage finish in Spain.
The gardens have been enjoyed by Parisians for centuries. Here four young women eat under the statue Of Bacchus, the Greek god of wine and grapevines.
Founded in 1885, the Moulin Rouge is an institution of Paris that basically pioneered the cabaret &mdash and the world famous Can-Can dance.
Ballerina Christianne Gaulthier, a dancer at the Moulin Rouge, takes a classic ballet position outside the Hotel de Ville metro station.
Paris has long been a mecca of fashion, appreciated by humans and dogs alike. It's launched fashion icons such as Coco Chanel, Yves St. Laurent, and many more.
In May 1968, Parisian students started a protest that launched a cultural revolution in the city. During the monthlong affair, students demonstrated against provincial norms and law on sex and politics and spurred a workers' revolt that nearly brought down the government.
The Concorde 001 prototype, the Franco-British supersonic aircraft, debuted at the Paris airshow in June 1969 in Le Bourget and here flies over Paris a month later.
The former French soldier launched a political career from his role in the two World Wars, taking over as French president from 1959 to 1969. On November 10, Parisians mobbed its newspaper kiosks to read the headlines of his death the day before.
During the first Paris Fashion Week, three models wear designs from Balmain's fall/winter 1974&ndash1975 ready-to-wear collection. Mass produced ready-to-wear clothing originated in the 1950s and took off in the following decades because it was cheaper than the clothing produced by small companies.
A major overhaul of the former national library began in 2011 and is set to be completed in 2020. The library is considered one of the most beautiful in the world.
The two hold signs to protest pollution in a demonstration by Friends of the Earth, an environmental organization.
Photos: D-day, the invasion of France
On June, 6, 1944, Allied forces landed on a swath of beaches in Nazi-occupied France in World War II’s most ambitious operation. The invasion and ensuing battle for Normandy helped change the course of the war. This year marks the 70th anniversary.
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29 of the Tastiest Treats to Try at Europe&rsquos Christmas Markets
Starting in December, the squares of Europe begin to bustle with Christmas markets that open in cities across the continent, from France and Italy to Germany, Austria, England, and more.
The markets, bountiful with local goods, have become a tourist attraction in their own right today, offering visitors and locals alike selections of handmade gifts, nativity plays, ice rinks, and walking buffets of delectable food selections and warm drinks to taste throughout the evening.
Some of the foods found at the markets today date back to the Medieval ages, giving travelers a chance to get to know each country a bit better by tasting local delicacies typically enjoyed during the festive holiday season.
Whether you have a sweet tooth or prefer a savory selection, the markets have something to offer everyone, from flaming mulled wine to fluffy fried donuts and smoked cheeses.
We&rsquove rounded up 29 of the treats you won&rsquot want to miss, though each market also has a wide selection of additional goods to taste during your visit.
While timing of markets can vary by destination, most tend to open on the Friday before Advent (four Sundays before Christmas Eve) through Dec. 25 (though some markets continue to remain open until as late as Jan. 6).
The filling: a lemon custard.
A custard is indeed the proper way to describe the filling. It holds its shape, but is far more soft than in the other lemon pies you might have encountered. Likewise, this filling is far more rich and luscious than its American cousin (it’s a French tart, after all), with a generous amount of butter in it too. With that, you’ll understand why you don’t need a meringue to complete it.
I like my filling quite bright and tangy, which requires the zest of 2 whole lemons. If you’re a bit more shy, you can use the zest of 1 or 1 ½ lemons.
Once filled, the tart simply gets baked again for 5 minutes for the custard to set and turn a deep beautiful yellow. You can then enjoy the tart slightly warm, or place it in the fridge for at least 2 hours and enjoy cold.
Mirror image of the photographer's view
After the image was taken by Daguerre, he announced to the world the first-ever photographic process, slightly different from Daguerreotype images, that showed a mirror image of the photographer&rsquos own candid view. As per reports, the street was later recognized to be as Boulevard du Temple, one of the busiest with several cafes, cinema halls, and shops in Paris. Although at the time of the picture, the street was deserted.
(Image Credit: Twitter/@prcboston)
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throwing my backpack on the floor and racing into the kitchen to bake meringue with my mother. the kitchen smelled of sugar and perfume, and i’d hold our old retro mixer still while the egg whites and sugar frothed up to stiff, glossy peaks before my eyes.
my mother would always bake the meringue in a pie dish, forming a sweet crunchy shell for my favorite lemon meringue pie (or, lemon on a cloud pie as we always called it).
i was never allowed to open the oven door to peek while the meringue baked, and when it finally came out of the oven, all crackly and light, i would sneak broken edges and let them dissolve into sweetness on my tongue.
Never made meringue before? Well this is a great time to start. All you need are three ingredients (egg whites, sugar and cream of tartar) and either a really strong arm or…a KitchenAid.
I love making meringue kisses like this because they’re so easy and light. Plus, you can store them in tupperware in the freezer for months. Two of these, plus a broken piece of extra dark chocolate, is my go-to daily dessert.
Making meringue is simple, but takes some patience. I always work with room temperature egg whites (they get the most air) so about an hour before you want to bake, separate your eggs and set your whites out on the counter. Then, beat them on high with a fourth of a teaspoon of cream of tartar until “you can’t see the bottom of the bowl anymore”, and then gradually add your sugar.
You might feel like you’re beating forever, but you’re not. You want to continue until you see very stiff, glossy peaks. In a KitchenAid, beating on high speed, this will take about seven to eight minutes.
Then, to make the kisses, just transfer the meringue into either a pastry bag with a tip or a plastic bag with a tip. Pipe out small blobs onto a lined baking sheet, like this:
Bake at 200 degrees for one hour and ten minutes, until totally dry and light. And…once you’ve closed the oven door, keep it shut! These kisses are super fragile and even the slightest bang will cause them to break while baking.
3 egg whites (room temperature)
Beat the egg whites and cream of tartar together until you can’t see the bottom of the bowl (it will get all frothy). Gradually add the sugar while the mixer is going on high and continue to beat for another seven minutes or so, until stiff glossy peaks appear. Test this by removing the whisk attachment from your bowl and standing it upright (see above photo). If the meringue doesn’t slump, it’s ready.
Pipe out kisses onto parchment paper or a silpat. Bake at 200 degrees for one hour and ten minutes, until light and dry.
heading to bed with three broken pieces of meringue and a handful of semi-sweet chocolate chips in my fist. when i got to my room, the chocolate had melted in my hands and i ate the meringue bits quickly, so as no crumbs would get in my bed.
Mrs. Goodfellow's Lemon Meringue Pie
Makes one 9-inch pie
The following recipe is adapted from chef Walter Staib's 2013 cookbook, Sweet Taste of History. Chef Staib is the driving force behind Philadelphia's historic City Tavern Restaurant, and host of the Emmy-winning PBS series A Taste of History, where he features foods from an earlier era.
Staib showcases Mrs. Goodfellow in Season 9, Episode 5 his Executive Pastry Chef, Diana Wolkow, recreates recipes using early 19th-century cooking techniques. It's particularly fascinating to watch the use of a "salamander," a red-hot iron disc that's taken directly from the coals of the wood fire to brown the meringue topping.
Fill a wide pot with at least 1 1/2 inches of water, with a thick ring of crumpled tinfoil placed inside to act as a "booster seat." Place over high heat until steaming-hot, then adjust temperature to maintain a gentle simmer. Combine egg whites, sugar, salt, cream of tartar, and vanilla seeds (if using) in the bowl of a stand mixer. Set over steaming water, stirring and scraping constantly with a flexible spatula, until egg whites hold steady at 175°F (79°C), between 8 and 10 minutes. Transfer to a stand mixer fitted with a whisk attachment and whip at high speed until meringue is glossy and beginning to ball up inside the whisk, about 5 minutes. Use immediately.
You can toast the sugar for this meringue in just 30 minutes with my "quick" technique or use sugar as a pie weight to toast it passively. In that case, after transferring the sugar to a new container, check to make sure it's grease-free by running a finger across the interior of the foil lining. If it feels greasy, it means the sugar was exposed to the dough and able to wick away some of the butter. While trace amounts of fat won't prevent Swiss meringue from foaming, they will adversely impact its overall volume and stability.